Standing against injustice

The debate regarding the treatment of youth in the United States criminal justice system is heating up. I predict that 2013 will be a year of change and progress when it comes to juvenile justice issues. Over the last few months alone I have seen more people rising to the cause then I have observed in years. I am dedicating this post to pictures from three separate rallies that were hosted on behalf of teenagers facing injustice in various forms.

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Blake Layman
Rally Location: Elkhart, Indiana Prosecutor’s Office
Date: April 3, 2013
Case summary:

Blake and four other teenagers were charged with felony murder after breaking into a home they believed was unoccupied. Upon entering the home, the owner got a gun and fired shots at the group as they tried to escape. He shot two of them, fatally injuring one. Instead of charging the surviving teens with the crime they actually committed, Prosecutor Curtis Hill charged all of them with felony murder. One of the teens has already accepted a plea for 45 years in prison.

Again, these teens did not murder their friend. They did not shoot him, nor did they ever imagine he would die. However, if the prosecutor goes through with the felony murder charges and obtains convictions these teenagers will spend all or most of their lives in prison.

On April 3rd, Blake’s family held a rally on his behalf.

Friends, family, and other supporters rallied against felony murder charges involving four teenagers.

Friends, family, and other supporters rallied against felony murder charges involving four teenagers.

Felony murder is not the appropriate charge in this case. Blake's family and friends refuse to allow him to suffer this injustice silently.

Felony murder is not the appropriate charge in this case. Blake’s family and friends refuse to allow him to suffer this injustice silently.

The Elkhart Truth printed a story about the rally, with additional pictures here.

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Josh Young
Rally Location: Louisville, Kentucky courthouse
Date: April 2, 2013
Case summary:

Josh Young is set to stand trial this summer in connection with the murder of his younger step-brother, Trey Zwicker. Though the prosecution has still not presented physical evidence, within the case’s discovery files, connecting Josh to the murder, the prosecutor is moving forward with the charges. It is important to note that Josh’s own father – Trey’s step-father – has since admitted to committing the murder and to manipulating others into throwing his own son under the bus.

Many of Josh’s friends and family believe he is innocent of the charges. This includes his former foster mom, Susan Stoneburner, who firmly believes in the teen’s innocence. In response to the judge’s decision to delay Josh’s trial for another couple of months, a group of Josh’s supporters took to the streets near the courthouse to express their distastel. Though the event was somewhat impromptu, it sent a strong message.

Those who believe in Josh will not give up this fight.

Friends, family, and other supporters rallied in front of the court to express their belief in Josh's innocence.

Friends, family, and other supporters rallied in front of the court to express their belief in Josh’s innocence.

Those who attended communicated the same simple message: "Free Josh Young"

Those who attended communicated the same simple message: “Free Josh Young”

Josh will stand trial jointly with his own father - the person who originally accused him of committing the crime before admitting he was the real perpetrator.

Josh will stand trial jointly with his own father – the person who originally accused him of committing the crime before admitting he was the real perpetrator.

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Robert Richardson
Rally Location: Bel Air, Maryland Courthouse
Date: January 16, 2013
Case summary:

Robert is facing trial for the murder of his father in Maryland. In the days, weeks, and months following the crime people began to emerge to describe stories of suspected verbal and perhaps even physical abuse perpetrated on the teen by his father. Robert was reported as attending school in well-worn clothing and neighbors described hearing many loud fights – including one where the father threatened his son. This case is a tragic reminder that we all have a responsibility to stand up for children when we suspect they need help. If this had been done for Robert previously his father would almost certainly be alive.

This is not lost on those who are now very vocal about their support of the Maryland teenager. His supporter base is growing and those who have grown to care about him refuse to turn a blind eye to this terrible situation.

Robert's supporters stood in the rain on behalf of the Maryland teenager.

Robert’s supporters stood in the rain on behalf of the Maryland teenager.

Those holding signs communicated a number of different messages regarding juvenile injustice.

Those holding signs communicated a number of different messages regarding juvenile injustice.

Those in support of Robert plan to keep standing against injustice until their voice is heard loud and clear.

Those in support of Robert plan to keep standing against injustice until their voice is heard loud and clear.

A third rally for Robert is scheduled to take place on April 19 at 10 a.m. Those attending plan to meet in front of the courthouse at 9 a.m. at the Harford County Circuit Court. If you are in the area and would like to attend there are more details on this Facebook event page. Please help spread the word to anyone who might be in a position to attend.

An article about the January rally is here.

Trial by convenience

Damien Echols (left) and Jason Baldwin (right) stood trial together in 1994

Damien Echols (left) and Jason Baldwin (right) stood trial together in 1994

In cases where two or more people are charged with the crime of homicide, the question about whether or not to try the accused together is almost always raised. Theoretically, trying two people for a single crime appears to make sense because it decreases the costs and time associated with multiple trials. This also reduces the trauma experienced by families and friends of the victim when exposed to these trials.

However, the truth of the matter is that combined trials usually contribute to an atmosphere of prejudice against at least one of the defendants. When deciding if this approach is truly responsible, one might ask if it is appropriate to favor efficiency over a defendant’s right to a fair trial. If you are undecided on this issue, perhaps the following cases will help demonstrate why combining trials is an unjust practice.

West Memphis, Arkansas

In the summer of 1993, three teenagers in West Memphis, Arkansas were arrested and charged with the murders of three 8-year-old boys. Two of the defendants – Jason Baldwin and Damien Echols – faced trial together. The defense attorneys argued against a combined trial for several reasons. For starters, Jason’s attorney, Paul Ford, was concerned about the impact negative media coverage of Damien would have on his client. In Mara Levitt’s book, Devil’s Knotshe wrote the attorney “did not want Jason to be painted with the same broad brush as Damien”.

Ford also raised issues pertaining to the contradictory nature of some of the evidence. For example, one of the witnesses for the prosecution stated she had observed Damien on a service road in the general area where the three boys were found. However, her eyewitness account did not include Jason. This was problematic because the prosecution based their case on the claim that Jason, Damien, and another teen by the name of Jessie Misskelley, were together when the three boys were murdered.

The presiding judge, David Burnett, decided against two separate trials for Jason and Damien. His reasoning was that combining the trials was a matter of “judicial economy“. He also added that he did not feel that a joint trial would jeopardize either of the teenagers’ right to a fair trial.

The jury on that particular trial was advised to consider Jason and Damien separately in terms of their alleged involvement in the murders, but we will never know if the jury was truly able to do that. Based on the case files made publicly available, a number of people provided information to the police that directly contradicted the prosecution’s contention that Jason and Damien were together the evening the murders occurred. Providing proof in the form of alibi or eyewitness accounts that the two were separated would have significantly damaged the state’s case against all three teens. However, in a joint trial this can create confusion and hinder each of the defendants’ defenses.

An unfortunate aspect of Jason’s defense was that witnesses could have provided an alibi for Jason throughout the evening of May 5th, but they were never called to the stand. Jason’s defense rested after calling a single witness: Charles Linch. It is fair to conclude that a separate trial, combined with a more zealous defense on Jason’s behalf, might have resulted in a completely different outcome for Jason.

With that said, the three teens accused of the murders were subsequently convicted in two trials. Jessie received his trial first. Jason and Damien’s trial came second. Over the course of 18 years, a time-consuming and expensive legal battle has taken place in the appellate courts to acquire freedom for the three convicted. DNA testing has helped to support Jason, Jessie, and Damien’s claim of innocence.

In August of 2011, the three who had became known as the “West Memphis Three” were released from prison after entering an Alford Plea. Such a plea does not require an admission of guilt. Instead, it depends upon the person’s willingness to acknowledge the prosecution’s ability to meet its burden of proof in court. The precedent for this plea arrangement stems from the Supreme Court case North Carolina v. Alford.

The West Memphis Three are now free, but at what cost?

Louisville, Kentucky

Josh Young (far left) could receive a joint trial with his accuser, Josh Gouker (far right)

Josh Young (far left) could receive a joint trial with his former accuser, Josh Gouker (far right)

Josh Young is now 17-years-old. He was only 15 when his stepbrother, Trey Zwicker, was murdered in May of 2011. The police arrested Josh in connection with the crime after his father fled the state with the teen. At the time it appeared as though detectives considered Josh’s father, Josh Gouker, a suspect in the case.

Gouker and his son were arrested in Alabama in June of 2011 on gun charges. Gouker was also held on a kidnapping charge in relation to a woman who claimed he forced her to drive at gunpoint. He was released from jail in the state of Alabama during the month of September, but was remanded back into custody by October.

During this time period, Gouker contacted the detectives investigating Trey’s murder. He told them that his son had committed the crime and that he had not known about Josh’s involvement until after. His claims contradicted statements he made previously. In an attempt to prove he was telling the truth to police, Gouker orchestrated phone calls to several family members and friends. Though he tried to get various people to corroborate his claim that Josh was the perpetrator, some of conversations that took place presented clear red flags that Gouker was trying to divert suspicion off of himself by casting it onto his own son.

Eventually Gouker admitted that he had murdered Trey on his own, but by then the damage was done. Now the younger and elder Josh both stand accused of the murder. Moreover, the prosecution wants to try the two together. This, despite Josh’s defense attorney’s claim that he “plans to introduce 20 new factual items that will show the teen did not kill Zwicker, 14, by beating him with a baseball bat.”

Josh Young’s defense attorneys want him tried separately from his father. Trying Josh beside his father presents a number of hurdles for the defense, including the potential for Gouker to influence or attempt to manipulate witnesses for Josh’s defense. Discovery evidence demonstrates he has done this in the past and so there is reasonable concern he may do it again.

A combined trial would also force Josh to stand trial next to his accuser. Instead of having the opportunity to challenge his accuser in court in the traditional sense, he runs the risk of being perceived negatively when the jury learns more about Gouker. This is a similar dilemma to the one mentioned previously in which Jason Baldwin’s defense attorneys worried that he would be impacted by the evidence presented against Damien – even though much of it had nothing to do with Jason.

Gouker’s defense wants a separate trial as well.

Judge Barry Willett is expected to make a decision about trying Josh and his father separately or together on March 22. Hopefully the judge will preserve each defendants’ right to a fair trial. Only time will tell.

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